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America which was modeled on the state-of-the-art pilot ships of New York astonished people from the moment she arrived in Europe. Her reversed bow, like a Clipper-ship, her tin plating, and her sails of vertical layers of cotton, laced to the masts, had never been seen before.
The Atlantic was built in 1903 by Townsend and Downey shipyard, and designed by William Gardner, for Wilson Marshall. The three-masted schooner was skippered by Charlie Barr and it set the record for fastest transatlantic passage by a monohull in the 1905 Kaiser’s Cup race. The record remained unbroken for nearly 100 years.
Designed by Ben Lexcen, built by Stephan Ward, owned by Alan Bond and helmed by John Bertrand, the Australia II featured an innovative winged keel design developed by Lexcen. This helped to make it very fast and manoeuvrable in many conditions, and was the most notable and controversial design feature of the boat. During the summer of 1983, as selection trials took place for the Cup defence that autumn, it was unclear whether the keel design was legal within the strict rules governing the 12-metre class.
Questions also surrounded the Dutch involvement in the design of the keel, which under the rules had to be designed by an Australian. The keel design was eventually confirmed as legal while the keel origin controversy remains unanswered. Despite being the first 12-metre to sport the new design, Australia II was not the first boat to have a winged keel, though her success did much to make the concept popular.
Fishermen have always been proud of the superiority of their craft. Since the middle of the 19th century, owners of fishing schooners have engaged in keen rivalry to prove their mettle by racing for the Thomas Lipton trophy. Over the years this contest turned into Canadian-American rivalry. The Bluenose, of Halifax, carried a sailors nickname for men and boats hailing from Nova Scotia. She was the outstanding champion on the Canadian side. The schooner Bluenose was built in Nova Scotia in 1921 to fish the rough waters off the coast of Newfoundland. A salt banker type, she stayed out until Her holds were full of fish, using salt to preserve her catch. During prohibition, she was used as a rumrunner. The Bluenose was lost off Haiti in 1946.
The famous America’s Cup J-class racing Yacht the 131 ft. Endeavour, she raced from 1933 to 1937. Owned by the famous yacht builder T.O.M. Sopwith the Endeavour won many famous races against Sir Thomas Liptons Shamrock V. She was rescued and restored to her Original beauty by philanthropist Elizabeth Meyer. She can be seen Sailing or at dock in Newport, RI harbour today.