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In the late 1920s, the Japanese Ministry of Transport ordered the four-masted barks Nippon Maru and Kaiwo Maru for the Kokai-Kunrensho (Institute for Nautical Training), which already operated the four-masted bark Taisei Maru and the four-masted barkentine Shintoku Maru. Their work for the merchant marine is reflected in their names. Maru, which signifies wholeness or unity, is an almost universal suffix for Japanese merchant-ship names. Nippon means Japan, and Kaiwo is the mythological king of the seas, equivalent to Neptune or Poseidon. Commissioned in 1930 and 1931, respectively, the barks were described by Harold Underhill as “imposing rather than beautiful.” Their very high freeboards reflected a desire to maximize the amount of natural light admitted to the crew spaces below decks, while their comparatively shorter yards and smaller sails were designed to accommodate the relatively small stature of the average Japanese before World War II.
Before World War II, the ships’ training voyages carried them throughout the Pacific, and Nippon Maru made four voyages to the United States, five to Hawaii and seven elsewhere in the Pacific. During World War II her yards were sent down and she was used as a motor-training vessel in the Home Islands. Repatriating Japanese soldiers and civilians after the war, she was rerigged in 1952 and resumed training, making her first cruise to the United States in 1954, and her first to the East Coast in 1960. Both Nippon Maru and Kaiwo Maru remained active training ships until the 1980s, when they were replaced by new ships with the same names.
The first large three-decker, the Royal Louis was completed in Toulon in 1668, and was registered at 200 tons. The Royal Louis was a 3-deck vessel with 120 guns. Her captain was a Squadron Admiral. She was one of the most powerful firsrank vessels belonging to the French Royal Navy at that time. Our ship model represents the Royal Louis according to the plans of 1779, when she was Admiral-Ship of the Blue and White Squadron, being part of the American Squadron, also called Eark d’Estaing’s.
The San Felipe Launched in 1690, was one of the most beautiful Spanish ships of its era. She was led the Spanish Armada. San Felipe’s role in the war against the British and French was to help protect Spanish settlements and harbors but also to transport gold from the new world. The San Felipe was armed with 96 cannons enough firepower to match the best ships the French and British navies had to offer. In 1705, the San Felipe fought a heroic battle against 35 British ships but was captured by an English ship and badly damaged and ended up at the bottom of the ocean with several tons of gold.
SOVEREIGN OF THE SEAS
Sovereign of the Seas – The ship was designed in 1634 by Phineas Pett and was the first ship to have three full gun decks, carrying 102 guns on the orders of King Charles I instead of the 90 originally planned. No expense was spared in her construction. All her guns were made from bronze instead of cast iron which meant their construction was four times more expensive.
The construction of Sovereign of the Seas was part of Charles I's plan to overawe possible enemies, primarily the Dutch and Spanish, with England's naval power. Her first engagement was the Battle of Kentish Knock during the First Dutch War on 28 September 1652. Her career came to an abrupt end when she accidentally caught fire at Chatham on 27 January 1696.
US. COAST GUARD EAGLE
The Eagle is a three-masted sailing Barque with 21,350 square feet of sail. It is homeported at the CG Academy, New London, Connecticut. It is the only active commissioned sailing vessel in the U.S. maritime services. (One of five such Training Barques in world. Sister ships include: MIRCEA of Romania, SAGRES II of Portugal, GORCH FOCK of Germany, and TOVARICH of Russia.)
The Eagle bears a name that goes back to the early history of the United States’ oldest continuous seagoing service. The first Eagle was commissioned in 1792, just two years after the formation of the Revenue Marine, the forerunner of today’s Coast Guard.
Construction of the vessel began in 1795 at Hartt Shipyard in Boston following the design of Joshua Humphrey from Philadelphia. The CONSTITUTION was launched in October 1797 and was completed in 1798. She was armed with 44 cannons, including 30 long-barrelled 24-pounders.
In the war between England and France (1812-1814) the CONSTITUTION led a successful engagement against the frigates GUERRIERE (with 38 cannons) and JAVA. Her last wartime voyage was in February 1815.
Viking ships were marine vessels of particular designs used and built by the Vikings during the Viking Age. The boat-types were quite varied, depending on what the ship was intended for, but they were generally characterized as being slender and flexible boats, with symmetrical ends with true keel. They were clinker built, which is the overlapping of planks riveted together. Some might have had a dragon’s head or other circular object protruding from the bow and stern, for design, although this is only inferred from historical sources.
During the Thirty Years’ War King Gustavus Adolphus of Sweden ordered the building of a considerable number of large warships. They included the WASA which was already under construction and was originally to be called NY WASSAN. The total cost of building the vessel was approximately 100,000 imperial talers.
By July the 31st of 1628 all the cannons were on board and an the 10th of August of 1628 between 3 p.m. and 4 p.m. the WASA set sail on her maiden voyage. Once she was some way out to sea, she caught the wind in her sails. A few minutes later, a sudden squall forced the ship onto her side and first attempts to right her were unsuccessful. At the island of Beckholmen the WASA sank in 32 m of water. Salvage Operations began on l3th August 1628 and succeeded in bringing the WASA onto an even keel. However, it was not until 20th August 1959 that she was able to be raised for the first time by means of two pontoons. After 28 days a tug-boat towed the WASA 500 m to shallow water. By April 24th of 1961 all the preparations for raising the WASA out of the water had been completed.