97L x 28W x 89H (cm)
During the Thirty Years’ War King Gustavus Adolphus of Sweden ordered the building of a considerable number of large warships. They included the WASA which was already under construction and was originally to be called NY WASSAN. The total cost of building the vessel was approximately 100,000 imperial talers.
By July the 31st of 1628 all the cannons were on board and an the 10th of August of 1628 between 3 p.m. and 4 p.m. the WASA set sail on her maiden voyage. Once she was some way out to sea, she caught the wind in her sails. A few minutes later, a sudden squall forced the ship onto her side and first attempts to right her were unsuccessful. At the island of Beckholmen the WASA sank in 32 m of water. Salvage Operations began on l3th August 1628 and succeeded in bringing the WASA onto an even keel. However, it was not until 20th August 1959 that she was able to be raised for the first time by means of two pontoons. After 28 days a tug-boat towed the WASA 500 m to shallow water. By April 24th of 1961 all the preparations for raising the WASA out of the water had been completed.
In the late 1920s, the Japanese Ministry of Transport ordered the four-masted barks Nippon Maru and Kaiwo Maru for the Kokai-Kunrensho (Institute for Nautical Training), which already operated the four-masted bark Taisei Maru and the four-masted barkentine Shintoku Maru. Their work for the merchant marine is reflected in their names. Maru, which signifies wholeness or unity, is an almost universal suffix for Japanese merchant-ship names. Nippon means Japan, and Kaiwo is the mythological king of the seas, equivalent to Neptune or Poseidon. Commissioned in 1930 and 1931, respectively, the barks were described by Harold Underhill as “imposing rather than beautiful.” Their very high freeboards reflected a desire to maximize the amount of natural light admitted to the crew spaces below decks, while their comparatively shorter yards and smaller sails were designed to accommodate the relatively small stature of the average Japanese before World War II.
Before World War II, the ships’ training voyages carried them throughout the Pacific, and Nippon Maru made four voyages to the United States, five to Hawaii and seven elsewhere in the Pacific. During World War II her yards were sent down and she was used as a motor-training vessel in the Home Islands. Repatriating Japanese soldiers and civilians after the war, she was rerigged in 1952 and resumed training, making her first cruise to the United States in 1954, and her first to the East Coast in 1960. Both Nippon Maru and Kaiwo Maru remained active training ships until the 1980s, when they were replaced by new ships with the same names.
Viking ships were marine vessels of particular designs used and built by the Vikings during the Viking Age. The boat-types were quite varied, depending on what the ship was intended for, but they were generally characterized as being slender and flexible boats, with symmetrical ends with true keel. They were clinker built, which is the overlapping of planks riveted together. Some might have had a dragon’s head or other circular object protruding from the bow and stern, for design, although this is only inferred from historical sources.